Are You Familiar with the EV charging connector types?

Are you still worried about your EV charging connector types?

Nowadays, the global adoption of electric vehicles is rocketing. As more and more people start to choose EVs, it is essential for them to know different kinds of EV connectors. The connectors can be generally categorized into 2 types, and one is AC connector, the other DC connector. AC means alternating current, which is the current from the electricity grid. DC means direct current which can be stored in the vehicle’s battery, providing the energy needed to propel the EV.

And generally, every EV has two sockets one for DC and the other for AC. DC charging allows for recharging the vehicle and powering it for immediate use but if the current is AC it needs to be converted to DC through OBC(on-board charger, or AC-DC converter).

Below are the different kinds of connectors.

Chinese market European market American market Japanese market
AC GB/T Type 2 Type 1 Type2
DC GB/T CCS 2 CCS 1 CHAdeMO

What is a type 1 connector?

Type 1 connector is a Northern American standard 5-hole(the holes plated with copper) connector that supports single-phase alternating current charging and is widely used in North America and Japan.

Control Pilot” is a communication line used to negotiate the charging level between the car and the EVSE, and it can be manipulated by the vehicle to initiate charging and can carry other information.

type 1 connector

What is a type 2 connector?

Type 2 connector is a European standard 7-hole connector which supports both single-phase and three-phase alternating current. Compared with the type 1 connector, the type 2 connector has 2 pins which are AC Line 2 and AC Line 3 in three phase electricity power.

type 2 connector

What is a CCS 1 connector?

CCS means Combined Charging System. CCS 1 connector has 2 holes more based on type 1 connector. The extra pins, DC+ and DC- mean positive and negative direct current. This is for DC charging which charges direct current instead of alternating current. An EV should have 2 vehicle inlets one for DC Charging and the other for AC charging. But because of the appearance of CCS 1, EVs can have only 1 inlet for charging whether it is fast charging or slow charging. When you charge your EV with a type 2 connector, the other 2 pins of the vehicle inlet are unplugged. If you wanna have fast charging, the DC charging connector with 7 holes just fits the vehicle charging inlet.  CCS 1 applies to the American market.

CCS 1 connector

What is a CCS2 connector?

Similarly, the CCS 2 connector adds 2 holes beneath based on the type 2 connector. But the alternating current pins for Neutral and Line 1,2,3 are not plugged so CCS 2 Connector appears a 5-hole connector. But the vehicle inlet still has 9 pins because it needs to fit a type 2 connector.

CCS2 connector

What is a GB/T connector?

GB/T connector is a Chinese standard, divided into AC connector and DC connector. AC GB/T connector is a 7-pin connector. CC means charging confirmation, a pre-insertion signaling. CP means control pilot, post-insertion signaling.

DC GB/T connector is a 9-pin connector, among which S+ and S- are responsible for charging communication, CC 1 and CC2 pre and post-insertion signaling, and A+ and A- auxiliary DC power.GBT connector

What is a CHAdeMO connector?

CHAdeMO connector is a DC charging connector that applies to the Japanese market. As the picture shows, FG means reference for control lines, SS1 and SS2 charge sequence signal, controlling start and stop of charging.

N/C this pin is not connected. DCP is to let the EV grant EVSE permission to connect the power. PP is responsible for connector proximity detection during which charge interlocks and disables drivetrain while connected. C-H and C-L are responsible for communication with the vehicle bus to establish operational parameters.

Besides the connectors mentioned above, there is the Tesla connector. But it doesn’t matter if the vehicle inlet is not compatible with the charging connector owing to the existence of adapters. However, it would be better if the two were compatible.

Now can you tell the difference between these kinds of EV charging connectors?

EV Charging Connector Types

 

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