EVs are energy-saving and environmentally friendly means of transportation, but EV fire incidents have continued to occur in recent years.
1. Causes of EV fire
The main cause of EV fires comes from the vehicle’s battery. Because the battery is affected by impact, extrusion, and overcharging, it may catch fire.
2. Battery thermal runaway
Compared with other batteries such as lead-acid batteries, although lithium-ion batteries have higher energy density and higher voltage,
their electrolyte components and electrode materials are more likely to burn. Therefore, lithium-ion batteries are more likely to spontaneously ignite.
Battery spontaneous combustion is mainly caused by thermal runaway of the battery. When the battery occurs such as an internal short circuit,
large current discharge, overcharge, etc., a large amount of heat will be generated inside the battery, causing the temperature to increase.
When the battery system reaches a higher temperature, physical and chemical processes inside the battery will be stimulated,
causing thermal runaway of the battery. In addition, the electrolyte is flammable, and spontaneous combustion of the car may occur.
3. How to prevent EV fire?
When using a car daily, you should know the charging time and frequency, and charge the battery according to the instructions to avoid overcharging, loss of power, or long-term fast charging.
4. Safety inspection and timely maintenance
If the vehicle is involved in an external collision, it is recommended to go to a 4S store for a safety inspection to ensure that the battery and other components are intact.
Even if there is no collision, the vehicle lines, power battery, and motor should be inspected and maintained regularly to ensure that the vehicle lines are normal.
5. Cleaning items in hot weather
Under high-temperature sunlight, the temperature inside the car is high, and flammable and explosive materials placed in the car may become the culprit of fire.
Therefore, please do not place lighters, perfume, sunscreen spray, and other items in the car.
In addition, reading glasses and other items that can form convex lenses to focus light should not be placed on the car’s center console,
instrument panel, or other places that are easily exposed to sunlight.
6. Park correctly to reduce sun exposure
Try to park in the shade. If you choose a parking location, you will get twice the result with half the effort in protecting yourself from the sun.
For cars with sunroofs, you can choose to open the sunroof slightly to allow air circulation inside and outside the car to reduce the temperature inside the car.
What to do if a new energy vehicle catches fire?
1. Never put out a fire yourself
Once a new energy vehicle spontaneously ignites, the fire will be very fierce, and most of the fires occur in the rear battery area,
which requires power-off treatment. This is too professional. It is not recommended that personnel put out the fire on their own or follow the traditional fire-fighting method of fuel vehicles. Control the vehicle to avoid casualties.
2. Stay away from the vehicle and call the police in time
After discovering a fire in a new energy vehicle, car owners and pedestrians should stay away from the vehicle as soon as possible.
After arriving in a safe area, call the fire alarm number 119 and explain the make and model of the vehicle to fire rescue personnel.
The fire rescue personnel will handle the matter and not put out the fire by themselves.
3. Easy to re-ignite, please do not turn back
In actual fire-fighting operations, new energy vehicle batteries are prone to re-ignition. Even after the fire is extinguished,
it is still recommended that car owners not return to the vehicle to avoid making a small gain.
4. The battery burns and produces toxic smoke
During the firefighting process, it is necessary to prevent inhalation of toxic gases such as hydrogen fluoride and hydrogen cyanide emitted after the battery is burned.